C# – Injecting multiple implementations with Dependency injection

asp.net-core, asp.net-core-mvc, c++, dependency-injection

I'm currently working on a ASP.NET Core Project and want to use the built-in Dependency Injection (DI) functionality.

Well, I started with an interface:

ICar{    string Drive();}

and want to implement the ICar interface multiple times like

public class BMW : ICar{    public string Drive(){...};}public class Jaguar : ICar{    public string Drive(){...};}

and add the following in the Startup class

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services){     // Add framework services.     services.AddMvc();     services.AddTransient<ICar, BMW>();      // or      services.AddTransient<ICar, Jaguar>(); }

Now I have to make a decision between two implementations and my decided class will set in every constructor that needs an ICar implementation. But my idea was to say, if the requested Controller is BMWController, then use BMW implementation or use Jaguar if the JaguarController is requested.

Otherwise DI don't make sense for me. How can i handle this issue properly?

For better understanding my problem take a look to this pic: https://media-www-asp.azureedge.net/media/44907/dependency-injection-golf.png?raw=true
How does the dependency resolver work and where can i set it up in ASP.NET Core?

In Unity it's possible to make something like this
container.RegisterType<IPerson, Male>("Male");
container.RegisterType<IPerson, Female>("Female");

and call the correct type like this

[Dependency("Male")]IPerson malePerson

Best Solution

The functionality you are looking for isn't easy to implement, at least when you are using it in the controller because controllers are treated a bit specially (By default, controllers aren't registered with ServiceCollection and hence not resolved/instantiated by the container and instead instantiated by ASP.NET Core during the request, see also the explanation and example on my related answer).

With built-in IoC container, you can only do it via factory method, here with an example on a BmwCarFactory class:

services.AddScoped<ICar, BmwCar>();services.AddScoped<BmwCar>();services.AddScoped<BmwCarFactory>(p => new BmwCarFactory(p.GetRequiredService<BmwCar>())));

The default IoC container is intentionally kept simple to provide basics of dependency injection to get you started and for other IoC containers to be able to easily plugin in there and replace the default implementation.

For more advanced scenarios the users are encouraged to use an IoC of their choice which supports more advanced features (assembly scan, decorators, conditional/parameterized dependencies, etc.

AutoFac (which I use in my projects) supports such advanced scenarios. In the AutoFac documentation there are 4 scenarios (altogether with the 3rd which @pwas suggested in the comments):

##1. Redesign your classesNeeds some additional overhead of refactoring your code and class hierarchy but heavily simplifies the consumption of injected services

##2. Change the registrationsThe docs describe it here, if you are unwilling or unable to change the code.

// Attach resolved parameters to override Autofac's// lookup just on the ISender parameters.builder.RegisterType<ShippingProcessor>()       .WithParameter(         new ResolvedParameter(           (pi, ctx) => pi.ParameterType == typeof(ISender),           (pi, ctx) => ctx.Resolve<PostalServiceSender>()));builder.RegisterType<CustomerNotifier>();       .WithParameter(         new ResolvedParameter(           (pi, ctx) => pi.ParameterType == typeof(ISender),           (pi, ctx) => ctx.Resolve<EmailNotifier>()));var container = builder.Build();

##3. Using keyed services (here)It is pretty similar to the previous approach to 2. but resolves the services based on a key, rather than their concrete type

##4. Use MetadataThis is quite similar to 3. but you define the keys via attribute.

Other containers like Unity have special attributes, like DependencyAttribute which you can use to annotate the dependency, like

public class BmwController : Controller{    public BmwController([Dependency("Bmw")ICar car)    {    }}

But this and the 4th option of Autofac make the IoC container leak into your services and you should consider the other approaches.

Alternatively you create classes and factories which resolve your services based on some conventions. For example a ICarFactory:

public ICarFactory{    ICar Create(string carType);}public CarFactory : ICarFactory{    public IServiceProvider provider;    public CarFactory(IServiceProvider provider)    {        this.provider = provider;    }    public ICar Create(string carType)    {        if(type==null)            throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(carType));        var fullQualifedName = $"MyProject.Business.Models.Cars.{carType}Car";        Type carType = Type.GetType(fullQualifedName);        if(carType==null)            throw new InvalidOperationException($"'{carType}' is not a valid car type.");        ICar car = provider.GetService(carType);        if(car==null)            throw new InvalidOperationException($"Can't resolve '{carType.Fullname}'. Make sure it's registered with the IoC container.");        return car;    }}

Then use it like

public class BmwController : Controller{    public ICarFactory carFactory;    public BmwController(ICarFactory carFactory)    {        this.carFactory = carFactory;        // Get the car        ICar bmw = carFactory.Create("Bmw");    }}

##Alternative to IServiceProvider

// alternatively inject IEnumerable<ICar>public CarFactory : ICarFactory{    public IEnumerable<ICar> cars;    public CarFactory(IEnumerable<ICar> cars)    {        this.cars = cars;    }    public ICar Create(string carType)    {        if(type==null)            throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(carType));        var carName = "${carType}Car";        var car = cars.Where(c => c.GetType().Name == carName).SingleOrDefault();        if(car==null)            throw new InvalidOperationException($"Can't resolve '{carName}.'. Make sure it's registered with the IoC container.");        return car;    }}